Verbal-Text as a Process of Compositional and Improvisational Decoration in Litungu Music

VERBAL-TEXT BEING A PROCESS OF COMPOSITIONAL AND IMPROVISATIONAL ELABORATION IN BUKUSU LITUNGU MUSIC

simply by

ABIGAEL NANCY MASASABI

Submitted in accordance with the needs for the level of

DOCTOR OF MUSICOLOGY

with the

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA

MANAGER: DR MARIE R. JORRITSMA

CO- BOSS: DR FLORENCIA NGALE MIYA

MAY 2011

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ASSERTION

Student number: 3658-166-6

My spouse and i declare that VERBAL-TEXT BEING A PROCESS OF COMPOSITIONAL AND IMPROVISATIONAL ELABORATION IN BUKUSU LITUNGU MUSIC is usually my own function and that most sources that I have utilized or cited have been mentioned and acknowledged by means of finish references.

________________________ SIGNATURE (Miss A D Masasabi)

______________ DATE

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DEDICATION For the late Japheth Muia Mutangili and my own daughter Elegance Buyanzi.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work may not have been completed without the meaning and specialist support of your number of individuals. We am particularly grateful to my supervisors for their tolerance, support and guidance. I thank Dr Marie Jorritsma for her perceptiveness in issues of theoretical content, dialect and firm. Her cautious reading and criticisms resulted in substantial improvement in the quality of this thesis. I am also indebted to my personal second director Dr Florencia Ngale Miya whose comments and suggestions were a source of creativity. Dr Miya‘s encouragement and her self confidence in my capacity kept me personally going throughout my function. I thank Dr Kidula for taking a chance to critique my thesis, directing me to books relevant to my research and for sending me a range of articles that enhanced my thesis. We thank Dr and Prof Tamusuza intended for insightful criticisms to the theory, method and terminologies used in my thesis. I also thank Doctor Kilonzo for her encouragement as well as for proofreading my thesis. Moreover I would like to appreciate Dr Omondi Okech pertaining to editing my thesis.

We would also like to acknowledge the help of Fred Wekesa Kusienya and Isaac Shitubi who produced my fieldwork much easier. They helped me to spot interviewees and escorted myself during my fieldwork. Shitubi was instrumental through the interview process and Kusienya assisted me personally by confirming the translations of tunes from Lubukusu to The english language. I prefer the cooperation We received by my interviewees who included members of the Jackson Kisika Band, the Namatete Band, the Sinani Group Band, the Lugulu Bumusika Music group and the Kwane Band.

Many thanks go to my parents Cleophas Masasabi and Grace Masasabi, my friends Richard and Wellington, and sisters Catherine and Dorcas for their support and ideas. Special thanks to my mom for taking proper care of my baby Grace as I was occupied collecting data.

Finally, We appreciate the changeless God intended for giving me personally strength and the sound mind to undertake this kind of study.

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ABSTRACT The Bukusu community is mainly found in Bungoma district of Western Kenya. The Litungu is a expression referring to a lyre among the list of Bukusu community. Music combined with this instrument is what is referred to as Litungu music. This music makes use of sung text and " verbal-text”/ silao-sikeleko (speech and speech-melody) and silao-sikeleko is the focus of this study. Silao-sikeleko is performed in counterchange with sung text in Litungu music. This research seeks to distinguish the ethnic and compositional role of silao-sikeleko in the music. To own objectives with this study We used a qualitative way of collect and analyze data. Data collection included the use of interviews and observation. The interviewees included performers of Litungu music, whose music was sound recorded and video recorded for evaluation. In addition , We made observations of the functionality sites and satisfaction behaviour, note-taking and producing audio and video recording. Music intended for analysis was then picked on the basis that it experienced the silao-sikeleko component. The Bukusu cultural view of silao-sikeleko is usually discussed with regards to their customs...

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